The discovery was made by the Keskesi East-1 well, which encountered a total of 63m net pay of hydrocarbons Apache transferred operatorship of Block 58 to Total earlier this month. (Credit: Anita starzycka from Pixabay) Total and Apache have made their fourth hydrocarbon discovery in the offshore Surinamese concession Block 58 through the drilling of the Keskesi East-1 well.The previous three discoveries are Maka Central, which was made in January 2020, Sapakara West in April 2020, and Kwaskwasi in July 2020.The latest one, which is an oil and gas discovery, was made after the Keskesi East-1 well was drilled by a water depth of nearly 725m.At this depth, the wildcat well intersected a total of 63m net pay of hydrocarbons, which was made up of 58m net black oil, volatile oil, and gas pay in Campano-Maastrichtian reservoirs, and 5m of net volatile oil pay in Santonian reservoirs.According to Apache, fluid samples show API oil gravities of around 27-28 degrees in the Campanian reservoir and 35-37 degrees in the Santonian.Apache CEO and president John Christmann said: “We are very pleased to announce our fourth consecutive discovery in Block 58 at Keskesi, which confirms oil in the eastern portion of the block.“We are excited to commence the appraisal program on our initial discoveries and extend our Block 58 exploration program to the north in 2021.”Total, Apache continue drilling for deeper Neocomian aged targetsThe partners are carrying out drilling to pursue deeper Neocomian aged targets.In line with the terms of its joint venture deal, Apache transferred operatorship of Block 58 to Total, earlier this month. Both the companies have a 50% stake each in the offshore Surinamese block.Apache will continue to be the operator of the Keskesi well until the Noble Sam Croft drillship is released.Total exploration senior vice president Kevin McLachlan said: “We are delighted to announce this new discovery, which confirms this first exploration campaign as a full success and adds to the proven resource base.“We are also excited, as new operator of the block, to start the appraisal operations designed to characterize the 2020 discoveries, while in parallel start a second exploration campaign on this prolific block in 2021.”
Buckwheat adds nitrogen to garden plots, produces beautiful flowers and delicious pancakes.Each year I start my garden with grand visions of endless bounty. Something happens around the first part of July, though.By then, I’ve had plenty of squash and cucumbers, and even had a few choice tomatoes; basically, my stomach gets too full to keep up.Now, the spring vegetables are petering out, as well as some of those early squash and cucumbers. The stifling heat and humidity make going out in the garden almost impossible before 7 p.m.This year I have a plan to keep those garden beds from turning into pastureland. No, it’s not mountains of mulch or more hours with the hoe and tiller. It’s buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).Buckwheat is an unusually fast-growing plant produced by commercial agriculture for its grain-like seeds. In the home garden, it is one of the best summer cover/green manure crops available.George Washington and Thomas Jefferson were some of the first American farmers to grow buckwheat, as they recognized its benefit in a healthy crop rotation. Native to Russia, the flexibility and adaptability led buckwheat to be grown on more than a million acres in the U.S. in the late 1800s.The grain is ground into flour and used in a variety of foods, from noodles in Japan to breakfast staples like cereal and pancakes in the U.S. I even had pillows made from buckwheat hulls when I lived in the tropical Pacific. The pillows are meant to be cooler because of the increased space for air. I never got past the crinkling noise I heard each time I moved.Buckwheat is easy to grow. Simply broadcast the seeds and lightly rake them in. A pound of seed is recommended per 500 square feet of garden space, or 3 ounces of seed per 100 square feet. You can’t really put too much seed down. Since it’s usually sold in bulk from the local feed store, it’s better to err on the side of too much. Buckwheat does not require highly fertile soils but will benefit from modest levels of nitrogen. Its many fine roots are well adapted to find lower levels of phosphorous, and when crop residues are returned to the soil, it becomes more available for other plants.Germination begins in about three to four days, and within 10 to 14 days, the ground should be fully covered with emerging leaves. This quick leaf cover protects the soil from erosion, retains moisture and shades out those dastardly weed seeds.Now just sit back, drink some iced tea and wait for the best part: the floral display that begins three to four weeks after planting. A large, dense planting will literally stop traffic. My neighbors tell me they always slow down to admire the 5-by-100-foot strip I planted along the roadside.The prolific flowers on buckwheat are a good nectar source for honeybees and other pollinators. The resulting honey is dark-colored and distinctly different in taste from clover or wildflower honey. The timing of flowering is also very beneficial to bees because midsummer is usually when there is less native forage available.Remember that those prolific flowers turn into a seed if allowed to develop and dry on the plant. If you do not want buckwheat carrying over into your next planting, cut the plants or till them under two to three weeks after flowering. Some farmers cut it and leave the plant residue on the surface as mulch, which will provide a premulched area for new transplants.