Every year on May 1, high-achieving high school seniors around the country face the final deadline for college commitment. For many middle- and upper-middle-class students, the date marks the end of standardized-test taking, application essay writing, campus visits, and financial aid planning — the complex process otherwise known as the college admissions game.This spring, the conversation about the ever-more-fraught competition for a spot in one of America’s top universities has shifted to an often-overlooked group, thanks to research by Christopher Avery, Roy E. Larsen Professor of Public Policy and Management at Harvard Kennedy School (HKS). If admission to elite colleges is a game, Avery and his longtime colleague Caroline Hoxby found, it’s one that low-income students with high potential are too often sitting out.In a National Bureau of Economic Research paper presented in March, Avery and Hoxby, an economist at Stanford University, reported that promising but poor high school students (those who scored in the top 10 percent among SAT takers and whose families make $41,472 a year or less) often do not apply to any selective universities — despite the fact that those colleges, on average, would be more affordable than less-selective schools thanks to their robust financial aid policies.“These low-income students’ application behavior differs greatly from that of their high-income counterparts who have similar achievement,” they wrote. “The latter group generally follows the advice to apply to a few ‘par’ colleges, a few ‘reach’ colleges, and a couple of ‘safety’ schools.”In short, Avery and Hoxby wrote, low-income high performers “exhibit behavior that is typical of students of their income rather than typical of students of their achievement.”The paper spurred a wave of media coverage, much of it critical of the selective colleges Avery and Hoxby studied. If poor students weren’t applying to good schools, the logic went, then it must be the fault of those colleges for not trying hard enough to attract them. In some corners, their work was taken as a sign that the country’s higher education system was broken, or as evidence that growing wealth inequality was stifling opportunity for young people at the bottom of the economic ladder.“I can see why some people take the paper that way, but I don’t see it that way,” Avery said. “We know the colleges are trying really hard to attract these students, but they’re facing a problem that is systematically very challenging. This problem is too large for a handful of selective colleges to solve on their own.”High-achieving, low-income students often live far from major urban centers and from areas with high concentrations of colleges, such as the East Coast, he said. Colleges can still reach students through mailings, “but these students are getting piles and piles of brochures,” Avery said. “They may have heard of Harvard, but there are lots of other great colleges that they haven’t heard of, and they can’t distinguish within this pile where to apply.”Compounding the issue, he said, is the fact that many of these students are the first in their families who plan to go to college. Without any insider knowledge of selective colleges from friends or family members, low-income, geographically isolated students often don’t know what their options are, Avery said — a theme that has appeared in his research on college admission over the past two decades.Avery, who attended Harvard College and received his doctorate at Stanford, hadn’t intended to study higher education when he joined the HKS faculty in 1993.“I was trained in game theory, which is about strategic interactions and incentives,” he said. “I realized the college admissions system had evolved into a situation where there was a lot of strategy involved.”At HKS, Avery began working with a mid-career student, Andrew Fairbanks, whose interest in the economics of college admissions had been sparked by his time as an admissions officer at Wesleyan University. In 2003, with co-author Richard Zeckhauser, HKS’s Frank P. Ramsey Professor of Political Economy, Avery and Fairbanks published “The Early Admissions Game,” the first academic book to fully explore the growing practice of early admission.After studying half a million applications to 14 elite colleges, the authors found, somewhat controversially, that applying early gave students a documentable advantage over peers who applied by “regular decision” deadlines.“We were estimating that at a lot of the colleges we studied, applying early was the same as increasing your SAT score by 100 points,” Avery said. More important, he added, “was that experienced college counselors at private schools already knew this. In a sense, it wasn’t a level playing field.”Since the book’s publication in 2004, many colleges have stepped up their efforts to recruit students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds by raising awareness of their early decision and financial aid programs. Harvard, with its Financial Aid Initiative, was at the forefront of the movement, Avery said.Still, colleges and students alike have opportunities to boost the numbers, he said. Selective colleges that lack broad name recognition can tap alumni to reach out to high school students in isolated towns where admissions officers can’t afford to travel. Low-income students can request application fee waivers, allowing them to apply to several more colleges than they otherwise would and to then compare their financial aid packages.“It’s like looking at a couple of houses,” Avery said. “You may need more than one option.”Working with the Strategic Data Project at Harvard’s Center for Education Policy Research, Avery advises fellows who analyze data for some of the nation’s largest public school districts. Through the project, he has become more involved in tracking students of all achievement levels as they move from high school into college — or not.“I now see that there are a lot of students who could go to good colleges but who don’t go to college at all,” he said. One of the Strategic Data Project’s goals, he said, is to help school districts track former students to see how many actually pursue higher education — instead of relying on self-reported plans — and to develop interventions to help graduating students follow through on their college goals.Collaborating with researchers from across Harvard, from the Graduate School of Education (GSE) to the Economics Department, has broadened his work over the years, he said.“There’s a growing community here of people who are really dedicated to these problems,” he said. “We’re trying to figure out what we as researchers can do to lower the barriers that have been keeping talented people from making it to college and graduating from college.”
by Metro Mathieu Flamini defends Laurent Koscielny after Arsenal captain refuses to travel on club’s US tour 1 min. story Visit Advertiser website GO TO PAGE Full Screen PLAY 1/1 Rio Ferdinand tells Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop struggling Manchester United captain Harry Maguire SPONSORED / Coming Next Read More Comment Mathieu Flamini played alongside Laurent Koscielny for three years (Picture: Getty)Former Arsenal midfielder Mathieu Flamini has defended Laurent Koscielny’s refusal to travel on the club’s pre-season tour of the United States.Koscielny stunned the club last Thursday by stating his intention to stay in England until his future was solved instead of travelling with the rest of the squad.The 33-year-old is believed to be angry at a supposed broken promise from Arsenal that would have allowed him to leave for free this summer.Instead, the Frenchman has another 12 months to run on his deal at the Emirates and the Gunners have set a price tag of around £8.8m for his services.AdvertisementAdvertisementADVERTISEMENT Top articles Metro Sport ReporterMonday 15 Jul 2019 8:06 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link1.5kShares Read More Read More Read More About Connatix V67539 Skip Flamini formed a strong friendship with his compatriot during his time in north London and he says there can be a ‘positive’ outcome.‘Lolo, my thoughts and support are with you,’ said Flamini.‘First and foremost, I know how committed and true to the Arsenal badge you have been all these years.‘Furthermore, I know how hard it must be for you to face this difficult situation.‘Emotions run high so sometimes with reflection, one can look at things from a different perspective. Given all of the above, I’m sure a positive solution will be found.’More: Arsenal FCArsenal flop Denis Suarez delivers verdict on Thomas Partey and Lucas Torreira movesThomas Partey debut? Ian Wright picks his Arsenal starting XI vs Manchester CityArsene Wenger explains why Mikel Arteta is ‘lucky’ to be managing ArsenalArsenal begin their pre-season tour against the Colorado Rapids on Tuesday.The Rapids are owned by Arsenal majority shareholder Stan Kroenke.MORE: Ashley Giles reacts to claims England were wrongly awarded extra run against New Zealand Advertisement Video Settings Skip Ad Read More Advertisement
Perhaps the biggest heavyweight title fight in the United States since Lennox Lewis vs. Mike Tyson in 2002 will take place on Dec. 1 when WBC champion Deontay Wilder battles lineal champ Tyson Fury at the Staples Center in Los Angeles.Negotiations started in earnest after talks between Wilder and unified titleholder Anthony Joshua stalled out. When Fury dispatched Francesco Pianeta by unanimous decision in August, Wilder entered the ring, and the fight was made official. – The Deontay Wilder vs. Tyson Fury clash plays a bigger role in the heavyweight division than most think. MORE: Join DAZN and watch more than 80 fight nights a yearWilder (40-0, 39 KOs) last fought in March, when he mounted a comeback and knocked out Luis Ortiz to score the biggest win of his career. The Alabama native has been looking for a career-defining outing, and he believes a win over Fury is just what he needs.Fury (27-0, 19 KOs) defeated Wladimir Klitschko in 2015 to win the IBF, WBA (super) and WBO belts. He vacated the belts in 2016 after it was revealed that he had failed a drug test. The Englishman returned in June after a two-year layoff to sort out personal issues and beat Sefer Seferi, who refused to come out for the fifth round. Can Wilder rise to the occasion and deliver in what will be his biggest test? Or will the “The Gypsy King” take down “The Bronze Bomber”?(All times Eastern.)Deontay Wilder vs. Tyson Fury date, start timeDeontay Wilder and Tyson Fury will meet on Saturday, Dec. 1. The fight card will begin at 9 p.m.How to watch Wilder vs. Fury liveYou can watch Wilder vs. Fury on Showtime PPV.Deontay Wilder, Tyson Fury recordsDeontay Wilder: 40-0 with 39 knockoutsTyson Fury: 27-0 with 19 knockoutsWilder vs. Fury fight cardDeontay Wilder vs. Tyson Fury for Wilder’s WBC heavyweight titleJarrett Hurd vs. Jason Welborn for Hurd’s IBF/WBA Junior Middleweight titleLuis Ortiz vs. Travis Kauffman; HeavyweightsJoe Joyce vs. Joe Hanks; HeavyweightsAlfredo Angulo vs. TBA; Super MiddleweightsJulian Williams vs. Javier Francisco Castro; Junior MiddleweightsMark Barriga vs. Carlos Licona for vacant IBF Strawweight titleChris Arreola vs. Maurenzo Smith; HeavyweightsRobert Guerrero vs. Adam Mate; WelterweightsMarsellos Wilder vs. David Damore; CruiserweightsIsaac Lowe vs. Luis Rafael Baez; FeatherweightsJesse Rodriguez vs. Alex Aragon; Junior FlyweightsAnthony Yarde vs. TBA; Light HeavyweightsWilder vs. Fury latest news – Why hasn’t Deontay Wilder become the biggest boxing attraction in the United States? Sporting News’ combat sports editor Andreas Hale gives the biggest reason.- Tyson Fury has a chance to regain the heavyweight title. Here are six of the greatest heavyweights to win back the gold.- Fury has risen to the top of the mountain and been to the depths of despair. We chronicle the uneven journey to this point.- Who wins: Deontay Wilder or Tyson Fury? Our team Sporting News Boxing team give their picks.- SN talks with the top names in the sport on who they feel walks out of LA the WBC heavyweight champion.- Saturday night is the moment Wilder has been waiting for.- Even though they are battling for heavyweight supremacy, Wilder and Fury are more alike than people think.- SN takes a delve into why Deontay Wilder vs. Tyson Fury is a must-see fight.