Thousands of indigenous languages are in danger of disappearing before the end of the century, including most of those spoken in North America, according to a report from UNESCO. This is part one of a two-part series of discussions with Native American language preservationists and their efforts to revive their ancestral tongues.When Richard Grounds began the Euchee/Yuchi Language Project (ELP) in 1996, it was no light undertaking. Grounds wanted nothing less than to prevent his tribe’s cultural extinction, and he knew he must start with its words.“We are an original people,” he said. “Our elders tell us our language is a gift from the Creator, and it is our special responsibility to care for that gift and pass it on to our children.”The Yuchi people, also known as the Coyaha, traditionally inhabited eastern Tennessee, though their origins remain a mystery and their language is a linguistic isolate that does not resemble any other Native American tongue. During the 17th century the Yuchi moved south, and in the 1800s they were forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, currently one of the worst regions for language loss. A concerted assimilation effort after World War II saw thousands of Native American children enrolled in boarding schools where they were only allowed to speak English, and could be punished for using their native languages. Like many indigenous peoples, the Yuchi came close to losing their language in a single generation.Grounds, who delivered the 2015 Greeley Lecture at Harvard Divinity School and returned this year to participate in the School’s Native American Speaker Series, does not believe this was unintentional. For centuries, the U.S. government, academics, and settlers told Native American tribes that their culture was on the brink of extinction, and treated them accordingly. Yet it only became a reality when they were prevented from learning their languages.Grounds at the Yuchi Knowledge Bowl, featuring “Yuchi Einstein” who spreads the message to the community that they are as smart as he is if they can speak their language. Courtesy of the Euchee/Yuchi Language ProjectBefore the first Europeans came to the Americas, thousands of native languages were spoken across the continent. Today only about 150 remain, and three out of four are spoken exclusively by people born before World War II. When Grounds began his program there were fewer than two dozen fluent, first-language speakers of Yuchi, and all of them were grandparents of non-speakers. Only three remain, each over 90 years old.Today’s parents grew up hearing their grandparents speak Yuchi, said Grounds, but did not learn or pass it on to their children. “What we’re fighting against is a sort of internalized colonialism. People have been anaesthetized to the value of their language.”Growing up, Grounds remembers his grandmother speaking Yuchi to him and his siblings, but as children of non-speakers, they never picked it up. “We had a feel for the language, maybe a few words and phrases, but we were never fluent,” he said. Grounds went on to learn several languages, passing graduate proficiency exams in French, German, Greek, and Hebrew, “But there was no funding to learn the language of my grandmother. It wasn’t important on the scale of European intellectual history.”Grounds sought out elders and learned Yuchi from them, but he knew that few of his tribespeople would have the privilege, time, and energy to do the same. With the help of the elders and concerned Yuchis, Grounds founded the ELP as a nonprofit to pay for student transportation and class materials. But because the Yuchi are not a federally recognized tribe, there is little reliable funding available to the program. It relies heavily on grants and donations.Centered around the Yuchi House — “more or less a hothouse for growing and teaching the language,” Grounds said — the ELP provides immersion classes for Yuchi children of all grades, free of charge. Community classes for curious adults are also offered.“Maybe they spoke as kids and they want to pick it back up now that they’re adults, but they’re not ideal candidates,” Grounds said of the adult students. “The ideal situation is to get to them before they learn English.”The sense of hope in the Yuchi community is matched only by the sense of urgency. Not only have nearly all their native-speaking elders died, but none of those who remain live particularly close to each other. Simply getting them to and from classes can take more time than the classes themselves, Grounds said.Elder Maxine Wildcat Barnett teaches the children a story about shat’anA (fox) during an immersion class. Courtesy of the Euchee/Yuchi Language ProjectThe program has been able to make a few adults fluent enough to teach the roughly 60 enrolled children, but the gap between the last generation of first-language speakers and the next is so large that the program will be dependent on second-language speakers for many years to come.To make matters worse, Yuchi is a notoriously difficult language to learn. It has no known relative to compare with; it is agglutinative, so an entire sentence can be contained in one verb; glottal stops are integral, drastically changing the meaning of words that sound homonymic to an untrained ear; it is not only gendered but has different registers for men and women, and different pronouns for tribespeople and non-Yuchis.Like many Native American languages, Yuchi originally had no orthography, or standard written language. Linguists in the 20th century attempted to decode the language, but were unsuccessful until a phonetic transliteration was created in the 1970s. Grounds designed the orthography specifically as a teaching aid — the native-speaking elders do not use it outside of the classroom — knowing that there was little room for phonetic ambiguity.“The underlying concept of the writing system was to use something that would require minimum stretch for kids who were just learning to read. We had a linguist come in and pretty heavy-handedly insist on a direct IPA [International Phonetic Alphabet] system,” he said. But it would have meant that the kids would be learning that the letter E sounds like “eel��� at public school but “hey” at Yuchi House. “For the sake of young learners, we needed to minimize the shift from their already nascent expectations, [so] we went with one symbol/one sound.”He also wanted it to be easily typed, which is how the (@) symbol found its way into the Yuchi alphabet. Written Yuchi uses capital and lowercase letters to differentiate between long and short vowels, respectively, but there was still an odd sound out. In IPA, the A sound in words like “bat” or “cap” is represented by a grapheme called “ash” (æ). Æ is an official letter in a few North Germanic languages, and was used in most English-speaking countries until the 19th century, but fell out of favor when it was omitted from the first typewriter keyboards for space.Students read a prayer in Yuchi. Courtesy of the Euchee/Yuchi Language ProjectNeeding a symbol to represent the æ sound, Grounds looked at his keyboard and realized the answer was literally under his nose. It even kept with his desire to keep the letters intuitive. What better letter to signify the A sound in “at” than the symbol that means “at”?“It turned out to be very functional,” said Grounds. “Now kids are texting each other in the language.”The result of these efforts may seem modest, Grounds concedes, with the number of fluent Yuchi speakers up to just 16, but the real successes are less quantitative. In addition to daily after-school classes for children in grammar school, the ELP has started working with toddlers to create a new generation that speaks Yuchi before learning English. Grounds’ own grandson is the first child raised speaking only Yuchi in nearly 70 years.“The cultural health of our community is measured by the status of our language. It really matters in terms of our young people growing up as confident, healthy, self-fulfilled people who are able to succeed in life. It matters that they be grounded in their culture and their traditions, and nothing does that like knowing the language and being able to speak to the elders,” Grounds said.“We literally think of it as keeping the world spinning.”
The number of federal legislators calling for the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) to use its authority to protect credit unions hit 330 as of Wednesday, with a final count likely to come by the end of the week. This effort has been fully led by credit unions.The letter, composed by Reps. Adam Schiff (D-Calif.) and Steve Stivers (R-Ohio), has garnered support from both sides of the aisle.“With major rules already being implemented and new regulations on the horizon, our letter reminds the CFPB that Congress intentionally provided for regulatory flexibility to mitigate collateral damage on smaller financial institutions,” Schiff and Stivers noted in their call for signers.The letter itself cites the section of the Dodd-Frank Act that states the CFPB has the authority to adapt regulations by allowing it to exempt “any class” of entity from its rulemaking.The creation of the letter, and the widespread support it has garnered, represents a successful deployment of the “fierce, 360-degree advocacy” Credit Union National Association President/CEO Jim Nussle has touted, including recently at the recent CUNA Governmental Affairs Conference. continue reading » 12SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr
The attitudes surrounding Philadelphia and Boston couldn’t be in a more polar opposite state.The 76ers are rolling. Last week they took the Eastern Conference arms race to a new level, acquiring Tobias Harris and other players at the NBA trade deadline. Their new starting lineup consisting of Ben Simmons, JJ Reddick, Jimmy Butler, Joel Embiid and Harris is now arguably the best in the league, even better than Golden State’s, and has been tabbed by local media as “The Phab Phive.” MORE: Watch Celtics vs. 76ers live with fuboTV (7-day free trial)The 76ers are 2-0 since the big acquisition, including a 23-point blowout of the Lakers on Sunday in which Embiid had 37 points and newly acquired Harris dropped 22.Meanwhile tensions in the Celtics’ locker room are beginning to boil over. On Thursday, Boston blew an 18-point lead to the Lakers, losing on a buzzer beater from former Celtic Rajon Rondo. Things got worse two days later when they were booed off their home court following a blown 28-point lead against the Clippers. Adding insult to injury, Kyrie Irving left in the second quarter with a knee injury, and veteran forward Marcus Morris called out his team afterward.Marcus Morris went off on his Boston Celtics after the team blew a 28-point lead and lost at home to the Clippers on Saturday: https://t.co/DZr8dKqQGI pic.twitter.com/Agx5J0hn8X— Sporting News (@sportingnews) February 10, 2019Despite the opposite trajectories in team morale, the 76ers and Celtics are neck-and-neck in the standings. Boston has grossly failed to meet preseason expectations of title contention with the insertion of Irving and Gordon Heyward back into its lineup from a year ago. Despite the addition of the all-stars to the starting lineup, the 76ers hold a one game lead over the Celtics for the 4-seed.Here’s how to watch the Eastern Conference matchup live on TV and stream online. What time is Celtics vs. 76ers? The Celtics play the 76ers on Tuesday, Feb. 12. Tipoff is set for 8 p.m. ET.Celtics vs 76ers TV channel, live streamThe game will be broadcast nationally on TNT. It can also be streamed live online with fuboTV, which offers a free seven-day trial.Where is Celtics vs. 76ers being played? Thursday’s game will be held at the Wells Fargo Center in Philadelphia. It’s the final home game before the All-Star break for the 76ers, who have one four of their last five there. The Celtics are an even 13-13 on the road.
Rick Scott is among those calling out LeBron James for his comments on China. The Lakers star said yesterday that Houston GM Daryl Morey’s tweet in support of Hong Kong protesters hurt people financially, physically, emotionally and spiritually. Senator Scott tweeted it’s sad to see James joining the chorus kow-towing to Communist China and putting profits over human rights. https://www.850wftl.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/LeBron.mp3James also said Morey wasn’t educated about the issue, but Scott says James is clearly the one who isn’t educated on the situation.James made the comments before the Lakers’ preseason game against the Warriors in LA Monday. He later clarified on Twitter that he “did not believe there was any consideration for the consequences and ramifications of the tweet.”The Lakers played two preseason games against the Brooklyn Nets in China last week, and the players had to deal with the backlash firsthand.ESPN reports that players met with NBA commissioner Adam Silver in China and many were upset because they felt they were in the middle of the rift between the host country and the league. Morey tweeted out “Fight For Freedom. Stand With Hong Kong,” on October 4th, which caused an uproar from many in China. Multiple Chinese sponsors (the vast majority of Nike shoes are made in factories in China) cut ties with the NBA and China’s state television broadcaster refused to air the preseason games on TV. Rockets owner Tilman Fertitta stated that Morey did not speak for the team.Silver defended Morey’s right to free speech last week, but also regretted that so many Chinese were upset by his tweet.
Aaron Donald (Courier Photo/William McBride/File)NEW YORK (AP) – Every NFL draft is filled with intrigue. When the crop of college players has 102 early entrants, including the likes of Jadeveon Clowney and Johnny Manziel, that simply ratchets up the excitement.Here are five things to watch for in the first round Thursday night:WE’RE NO. 1: That would be the Texans, who went 2-14 last season to more than earn the first spot in the proceedings. But there’s no certainty who they will grab, or if they will stay there.General manager Rick Smith has made it clear the Texans have listened to offers for the first pick.“If we take the first pick, we know who we want,” Smith said. “(But) we are obviously open to moving out of the first pick, if in fact there is an opportunity for us to do so and if we think that is in the best interest of the organization.”Teams that could be interested in jumping up to the top, presumably to select South Carolina star defensive end Clowney, are Atlanta, Tampa Bay and even Dallas, which needs lots of work on its defense.GOING DEEP: Many analysts have dubbed this the best draft for wide receivers in years, perhaps ever. The consensus top guy is Clemson’s Sammy Watkins, followed by Mike Evans of Texas A&M, Brandin Cooks of Oregon State, Odell Beckham Jr., of LSU, Marqise Lee of Southern California, and Kelvin Benjamin of national champion Florida State.Watkins is projected to go in the first five picks, unusually high for a wideout.“I think what sets Sammy apart is his sincerity and passion for the game,” ESPN analyst and 2003 Super Bowl-winning coach Jon Gruden said last week. “Everyone I’ve talked to has come away very impressed with Watkins’ passion to be great and to put forth a tremendous work ethic.”QB CLASS: No one is comparing this to the 2012 class that produced Andrew Luck, Robert Griffin III and Russell Wilson. Still, there’s talk four quarterbacks could go in the opening round.There’s also some thought that only two, Texas A&M’s Manziel and Central Florida’s Blake Bortles, will be taken Thursday night.The other highly rated quarterbacks to watch for are Louisville’s Teddy Bridgewater, Fresno State’s Derek Carr, and two late risers: Georgia’s Aaron Murray and Pittsburgh’s Tom Savage.Manziel, the 2012 Heisman Trophy winner, has lots of boom or bust in him. Nobody can deny he is a big-time playmaker, though.“When you’re dealing with a high-profile position like the quarterback, obviously there’s some well-documented things to cover and to consider,” Gruden said. “Manziel brings a lot of excitement and interest to your organization. Maybe some people don’t want to be part of it. That will be up to them.”IN THE TRENCHES: No fewer than a dozen guys who play on either the offensive or defensive line figure to go Thursday. They range from the NFL-ready tackle Jake Matthews of Texas A&M, whose dad, Bruce, is in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, to UCLA guard Xavier Su’a Filo on offense. On defense, look for Pittsburgh tackle Aaron Donald and Notre Dame nose tackle Louis Nix III.It’s possible that the first three players chosen all will do their work in the trenches: Clowney, Buffalo DE-LB Khalil Mack, and Auburn tackle Greg Robinson.LESSER KNOWNS: Some players from smaller schools to watch out for, if not in the first round then certainly in the second:LB-DE Khalil Mack, Buffalo – A certain high pick who can disrupt any offense with his pass-rushing skills and is no slouch against the run.S Jimmie Ward, Northern Illinois – Hits a ton and had an impressive Senior Bowl. But he comes off foot surgery.QB Jimmy Garappolo, Eastern Illinois – From the same school that produced Tony Romo, he’s skilled, mature and a leader.OL Joel Bitonio, Nevada – Versatile blocker who can play anywhere on the line, he has a real mean streak.___AP NFL website: www.pro32.ap.org and www.twitter.com/AP_NFL
Jofra ArcherAdvertisement NBA Finals | Brooklyn Vs5tWingsuit rodeo📽Sindre E7pd8( IG: @_aubreyfisher @imraino ) bpWould you ever consider trying this?😱7gdmCan your students do this? 🌚57s4dRoller skating! Powered by Firework England’s World Cup hero, Jofra Archer has condemned the racial abuse he suffers “on a regular basis” – while asking the authorities to take proper action. On Tuesday the 24-year-old speedster uploaded a screenshot of the racial slurs he received on the social media platform Instagram a couple of days ago, citing that he does not understand why someone would make such comments. Advertisement Picture Credit: BBC Sport“I have given a lot of thought about reacting to this and I hope no one else has to deal with stuff like this on a regular basis, it is not ever acceptable and should be addressed properly in my opinion. I will never understand how people feel so free to say these things to another human being, it baffles me,” Archer wrote on his Instagram story along with the screenshot of the racial abuse on Monday evening.Picture Credit: IG/jofraarcherThe Rajasthan Royals bowler, who helped England lift their first ever World Cup last year at home, said the issue needed to be “addressed properly”.Advertisement However, this isn’t the first time that Archer has been subjected to racial abuse. During England’s tour of New Zealand last November, Archer experienced the shameful practice as he scored a second-innings 30 during England’s defeat in Mount Maunganui.“A bit disturbing hearing racial insults today while battling to help save my team. The crowd has been amazing this week except for that one guy. The Barmy Army was good as usual also.” Archer tweeted after the match.Advertisement Following the incident, a police investigation was launched and the New Zealand Cricket Council on January announced that a 28-year-old man had been identified as the perpetrator. The man was then handed a ban from all of the country’s stadiums for two years while being issued a verbal warning for using insulting language by the authorities.But Archer feels that isn’t enough to stop such incidents. The Sussex pacer who is recovering from a stress fracture in his elbow, last week, tweeted a link to a YouTube video which accused him of pulling “race card nonsense” regarding the abuse he suffered in New Zealand.“This is the most rubbish I’ve ever seen on the internet and it makes me sick to my stomach,” he said in the tweet. You may also like:Jofra Archer subjected to racial abuse in innings defeat, New Zealand Cricket issues apologyPolice are investigating alleged racially-aggravated assault at Chelsea’s club academy Advertisement